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Honorius
Augustus (Western Roman Empire)  AD 393 - 423

Flavius Honorius (AD 384 - 423):
Son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla;
Brother of Arcadius;
Brother-in-law of Aelia Eudoxia;
Uncle of Theodosius II and Aelia Pulcheria;
Half-brother of Galla Placidia.

AD 421 - co-Augustus with Constantius III
Paralel rulers of the Eastern Roman Empire:
Theodosius I (AD 379 - 395)
Arcadius (AD 383 - 408)
Theodosius II (AD 408 - 450)

Flavius Honorius, emperor of the West, succeeded his father Theodosius the Great as western ruler and a colleague of his older brother Arcadius, who got the eastern part of the empire. In 395 Honorius was a minor and the real power was in the hands of his Master of Soldiers, the half-Vandal half-Roman Stilicho who doubled as his father-in-law. A capable commander, Stilicho felt too close to his Germanic cousins, the more so for it looks like he had designs to use them against the eastern emperor in a territorial conflict over the prefecture of Illyricum. He thus let go on several occasions the Visigoths, the Ostrogoths, and combined masses of Suevi, Alamanni, Burgundians, and Alanni—just about every Germanic tribe that happened to invade Italy—even though the troops he led frequently overwhelmed the barbarians. Moreover, he even compelled the unwilling Senate to vote a subsidy that looked more like ransom, to the Visigoths of Alaric in 408. That was the straw that broke the camel’s back though for soon thereafter the Senate accused him of conspiracy and he was put to death. Alaric continued his relentless drive, however, and in the absence of capable leadership finally took and sacked Rome in 410. Honorius, who resided in Ravenna, chose for his new military chief Constantius III and under his leadership Gaul was cleared of usurpers and the Visigoths pushed back. In 421 Constantius, by then co-emperor, died and two years later Honorius caused a public scandal by an amorous display of affection to his half-sister Galla Placidia. She must have resented this, however, and incited her Germanic followers into clashes with Honorius’ supporters in the streets of Rome. In the same year the emperor was truck by dropsy and died.

Mints: Alexandria, Antioch, Arelate, Constantinopolis, Cyzicus, Heraclea, Lugdunum, Mediolanum, Nicomedia, Rome, Sirmium, Thessalonica.

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